What is ADS-B?
ADS-B is a next generation surveillance technology incorporating both air and ground aspects that provide Air Traffic Control (ATC) with a more accurate picture of the aircraft’s three-dimensional position in the en route, terminal, approach and surface environments. The aircraft provides the airborne portion in the form of a broadcast of its identification, position, altitude, velocity, and other information. The ground portion is comprised of ADS-B ground stations which receive these broadcasts and direct them to ATC automation systems for presentation on a controller’s display. In addition, aircraft equipped with ADS-B IN capability can also receive these broadcasts and display the information to improve the pilot’s situation awareness of other traffic. ADS-B is automatic because no external interrogation is required. It is dependent because it relies on onboard position sources and broadcast transmission systems to provide surveillance information to ATC, and other users.
ADS-B IN and ADS-B OUT
ADS-B OUT refers to an aircraft broadcasting own-ship information. ADS-B IN refers to an aircraft’s ability to receive ADS-B information, such as ADS-B messages from other aircraft or Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B), Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Rebroadcast (ADS-R) from the ground infrastructure, and (FIS-B) weather information.
Who is making us do this and why?
14 CFR § 91.225 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Out equipment and use.
After January 1, 2020, and unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft below 18,000 feet MSL and in airspace described in paragraph (d) of this section unless the aircraft has equipment installed that (1) Meets the requirements in (i) TSO–C166b; or (ii) TSO–C154c, Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Equipment Operating on the Frequency of 978 MHz (d)After January 1, 2020, and unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft in Class A airspace unless the aircraft has equipment installed that (1) Meets the requirements in TSO– C166b, Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS–B) Equipment Operating on the Radio Frequency of 1090 Megahertz (MHz); and Class B and Class C airspace areas; (2) Except any aircraft that was not originally certificated with an electrical system, or that has not subsequently been certified with such a system installed, including balloons and gliders. These aircraft may conduct operations without ADS–B Out, within 30 nautical miles of an airport listed in appendix D, section 1 of part 91 from the surface upward to 10,000 feet MSL; (3) Above the ceiling and within the lateral boundaries of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport upward to 10,000 feet MSL; (4) Except any aircraft that was not originally certificated with an electrical system, or that has not subsequently been certified with such a system installed, including balloons and gliders. These aircraft may conduct operations without ADS–B Out, Class E airspace within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia at and above 10,000 feet MSL, excluding the airspace at and below 2,500 feet above the surface; and (5) Class E airspace at and above 3,000 feet MSL over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 nautical miles. 91.227 offers the expected performance requirements.
On January 1, 2020, If you fly below 18,000 ft in an aircraft with an electrical system, outside of class E airspace you will be required to; Broadcast your position data among other things (ADS-B Out) on 978mhz. If you fly above 18,000 feet; Broadcast your position data among other things (ADS-B Out) on a 1090mhz extended squitter transponder. (this unit is also acceptable below 18,000 ft)
What's the deal with WAAS?
WAAS is not a requirement, HOWEVER it is the only solution offered to the GA community with the accuracy to comply with 14CFR § 91.227.
What's “In” it for me?
Equipping with ADS-B “In” datalink technology that allows you to receive subscription-free Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) weather broadcast from ADS-B ground stations on this same 978 UAT frequency. On a compatible flight display, this uplink allows you to view graphical NEXRAD radar, METARs, TAFs, SIGMETs, AIRMETs, NOTAMs, TFRs and more. ADS-B position reports directly from other aircraft in your vicinity. Because the FAA permits ADS-B broadcasts on 2 frequencies (978 UAT and 1090 ES), If you equip with a unit that contains both receivers so you can see a comprehensive view of all ADS-B “Out” equipped targets. ADS-B provides the ability to provide air-to-air datalinks with other aircraft. ADS-B “In” technology also allows you to receive Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) information. On a compatible display, TIS-B allows you to view the same dynamic traffic picture that ATC ground controllers are seeing.
To contact us:
Phone: (717) 774-7533
Fax: (717) 774-2448